KS1 and KS2
Pupils should be able to describe associated processes and key characteristics in common language, but they should also be familiar with, and use, technical terminology accurately and precisely. They should build up an extended specialist vocabulary. They should also apply their mathematical knowledge to their understanding of science, including collecting, presenting and analysing data. The social and economic implications of science are important but, generally, they are taught most appropriately within the wider school curriculum: teachers will wish to use different contexts to maximise their pupils’ engagement with and motivation to study science.
Pupils in years 1 and 2 should explore the world around them and raise their own questions - for example going on a trip to a reservoir.
Scientific knowledge and conceptual understanding:
• They should build up an extended specialist vocabulary
• The social and economic implications of science are important but, generally, they are taught most appropriately within the wider school curriculum: teachers will wish to use different contexts to maximise their pupils’ engagement with and motivation to study science.
Interactions and interdependencies
Relationships in an ecosystem
• The interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem, including food webs and insect pollinated crops
• The importance of plant reproduction through insect pollination in human food security
• How organisms affect, and are affected by, their environment, including the accumulation of toxic materials.
Earth and atmosphere
• The composition of the Earth
• The structure of the Earth
• The rock cycle and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
• Earth as a source of limited resources and the efficacy of recycling
• The carbon cycle
• The composition of the atmosphere
• The production of carbon dioxide by human activity and the impact on climate.
Calculation of fuel uses and costs in the domestic context:
• Comparing energy values of different foods (from labels) (kJ)
• Comparing power ratings of appliances in watts (W, kW)
• Comparing amounts of energy transferred (J, kJ, kW hour)
• Domestic fuel bills, fuel use and costs
• Fuels and energy resources.
Pressure in fluids
• Atmospheric pressure, decreases with increase of height as weight of air above decreases with height
• Pressure in liquids, increasing with depth; upthrust effects, floating and sinking
• Pressure measured by ratio of force over area – acting normal to any surface.
Nutrition and digestion
• Content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed
For some students, studying the sciences in key stage 4 provides the platform for more advanced studies, establishing the basis for a wide range of careers. For others, it will be their last formal study of subjects that provide the foundations for understanding the natural world and will enhance their lives in an increasingly technological society.
Experimental skills and strategies:
• using scientific theories and explanations to develop hypotheses
• planning experiments to make observations, test hypotheses or explore phenomena
• applying a knowledge of a range of techniques, apparatus, and materials to select those appropriate both for fieldwork and for experiments
• carrying out experiments appropriately, having due regard to the correct manipulation of apparatus, the accuracy of measurements and health and safety considerations
• recognising when to apply a knowledge of sampling techniques to ensure any samples collected are representative
• making and recording observations and measurements using a range of apparatus and methods
• evaluating methods and suggesting possible improvements and further investigations.
Analysis and evaluation
• Applying the cycle of collecting, presenting and analysing data, including:
• Presenting observations and other data using appropriate methods
• Translating data from one form to another
• Carrying out and representing mathematical and statistical analysis
• Representing distributions of results and making estimations of uncertainty
• Interpreting observations and other data, including identifying patterns and trends, making inferences and drawing conclusions
• Presenting reasoned explanations, including relating data to hypotheses
• Being objective, evaluating data in terms of accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility and identifying potential sources of random and systematic error
• Communicating the scientific rationale for investigations, including the methods used, the findings and reasoned conclusions, using paper-based and electronic reports and presentations.
Earth and atmospheric science:
• Evidence for composition and evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere since its formation
• Evidence, and uncertainties in evidence, for additional anthropogenic causes of climate change
• Potential effects of, and mitigation of, increased levels of carbon dioxide and methane on the Earth’s climate
• Common atmospheric pollutants: sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulates and their sources
• The Earth’s water resources and obtaining potable water.
KS1 AND KS2
A high-quality geography education should inspire in pupils a curiosity and fascination about the world and its people that will remain with them for the rest of their lives. Teaching should equip pupils with knowledge about diverse places, people, resources and natural and human environments, together with a deep understanding of the Earth’s key physical and human processes. As pupils progress, their growing knowledge about the world should help them to deepen their understanding of the interaction between physical and human processes, and of the formation and use of landscapes and environments.
Human and physical geography:
Describe and understand key aspects of:
• Physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
• Human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water
Human and physical geography:
Understand, through the use of detailed place-based exemplars at a variety of scales, the key processes in:
• Physical geography relating to: geological timescales and plate tectonics; rocks, weathering and soils; weather and climate, including the change in climate from the Ice Age to the present; and glaciation, hydrology and coasts
• Human geography relating to: population and urbanisation; international development; economic activity in the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors; and the use of natural resources
• Understand how human and physical processes interact to influence, and change landscapes, environments and the climate; and how human activity relies on effective functioning of natural systems
Purpose of study:
A high-quality citizenship education helps to provide pupils with knowledge, skills and understanding to prepare them to play a full and active part in society. In particular, citizenship education should foster pupils’ keen awareness and understanding of democracy, government and how laws are made and upheld. Teaching should equip pupils with the skills and knowledge to explore political and social issues critically, to weigh evidence, debate and make reasoned arguments. It should also prepare pupils to take their place in society as responsible citizens, manage their money well and make sound financial decisions.
Pupils should be taught about:
• The roles played by public institutions and voluntary groups in society, and the ways in which citizens work together to improve their communities, including opportunities to participate in school-based activities.
Teaching should build on the key stage 3 programme of study to deepen pupils’ understanding of democracy, government and the rights and responsibilities of citizens. Pupils should develop their skills to be able to use a range of research strategies, weigh up evidence, make persuasive arguments and substantiate their conclusions. They should experience and evaluate different ways that citizens can act together to solve problems and contribute to society.
Pupils should be taught about:
• The different ways in which a citizen can contribute to the improvement of their community, to include the opportunity to participate actively in community volunteering, as well as other forms of responsible activity.
PSHE (Personal, social, health and economic education).
Schools tailor their local PSHE programme to reflect the needs of their pupils, we expect schools to use their PSHE education programme to equip pupils with a sound understanding of risk and with the knowledge and skills necessary to make safe and informed decisions.